To determine characteristics of ocular involvement in Behçet disease in Egyptian patients.
Retrospective review of 44 patients who met the revised International Criteria for BD and presented over the past 2 years to the Ophthalmology Department at Alexandria Main university Hospital.
81 eyes of 44 patients were included. 79.5% were male. Mean age at presentation was 37.70 ± 9.63 years. Mean duration of disease was 76.0 ± 52.76 months. Oral ulcer was described in 100% of patients. Systemic manifestations included genital ulcers 65.9%, pseudofolliculitis 31.8%, arthritis 22.7%,erythema nodosum 20.5% and venous thrombosis 6.8% .Ocular involvement was bilateral in 84.1% of patients . Panuveitis was the most common presentation 45.4% followed by posterior uveitis and retinal vasculitis .Isolated anterior uveitis was detected in 20.4% of patients. 81.8% of patients were treated with systemic corticosteroids with Immunomodulatory Therapy(IMT).Azathioprine was the most used IMT in 50% of patients ,followed by cyclosporine.7 patients received biologics after failure of other treatments. Posterior synechiae was the most common complication 40.9% followed by cataract 31.8% which was associated with prolonged duration of disease (p=0.032), glaucoma 18.2% and RD 4.5%. 6 patients had Phthisis bulbi in one eye at presentation.SD-OCT macular changes in 37 eyes showed ERM in 57.6% of eyes, macular edema in 39.4% , ellipsoid zone damage in 45.5% , and foveal atrophy in 33.3% .One eye had full thickness macular hole.
In Egyptian patients ocular BD typically arises in the third decade, is more common in males, and predominantly manifests as a bilateral panuveitis. Prolonged duration of disease is associated with ocular complications, structural macular damage and loss of useful vision.