We report a male who presented with acute visual defect and was diagnosed with urticarial vasculitis with recurrent branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) after systemic disease survey, fluorescein angiography (FA), and MultiColor imaging (MCI).
Interventional case report.
A 47-year-old male with a history of urticarial vasculitis presented with visual defect OD. Fundus examination showed two foci of ischemic retinal whitening beneath the inferior arcade and above the superior arcade. MCI demonstrated a greenish tinge in the corresponding area. FA revealed segmental arteriolar staining and arterial occlusive changes. BRAO with retinal arteritis was diagnosed. Toxoplasma IgG was positive. Sulfamethoxazole 400mg plus trimethoprim 80mg was given. His vision worsened after 1-week of treatment. The established lesions improved, but new lesions occurred. Interferon-gamma release assay was positive but tuberculosis DNA qualitative amplification test of sputum was negative. Sputum acid-fast stain was positive and culture revealed nontuberculous mycobacteria. Left facial itching and reactive lymphadenopathy developed. Prednisolone and cyclophosphamide were started. The initial retinal artery lesions regained perfusion.
Urticarial vasculitis with recurrent BRAO is an immune complex-mediated disease. Greenish-tinged occlusive lesions were noted from MCI with high resolution and contrast. MCI could be a valuable method for retinal vessel occlusive disease detection before FA and follow up.